However, recently Stephan (1995) suggested that a glacial tunnel valley at Leck in north-west Schleswig-Holstein may contain interglacial deposits of Harreskovian age. (1966) and Grüger (1968) described an interglacial deposit, stratified between a lower, weathered and an upper fresher till, both containing erratics of Scandinavian origin.
Pollen analysis suggested that this belonged to the Pre-and Early temperate zones of a temperate Stage that was certainly not the Holsteinian or Domnitzian, and which they then believed was not Eemian either.
In the Netherlands and the adjacent part of the North Sea Basin, Early Pleistocene cold conditions are recognised on the basis of pollen and foraminiferal evidence in marine cores and periglacial structures and Scandinavian erratics in exposures on land.
Some date imply the progress of these neotectonic activities up to the present time.
The knowledge of volcanic remnants in the LVF allows a more detailed reconstruction of the pre-volcanic landscape over the whole area with implications of the landscape evolution since the volcanic time by 32-29 Ma (climax age).
Only during a Cromerian Substage (MIS 12 or 16) may ice have been present on Dutch territory, but this is based on circumstantial evidence only.
For the Elsterian, there is by now good evidence for the presence of ice in the northern part of the country.
The Don Till, however, was clearly a major event, apparently the most extensive of all glaciations in central Russia.
It has always seemed bizarre that there has been so little evidence for glaciation in Europe before the late Middle Pleistocene, whereas there were clearly extensive earlier glaciations in North America, even though their precise dating is unclear.
For example, most of the southern North Sea was low-lying land like the Netherlands until the first major glaciation.
Moraines are preserved at the shelf-edge north-west of mainland Scotland, more than 60 km west of the nearest coastline (Holmes et al., 1993; Stoker et al., 1993).
Compared with the fragmented onshore Quaternary sedimentary record, that offshore is considerably more complete, especially towards the shelf-edge where large submarine fans formed during major glacations (P915341).
The offshore sequence is generally thicker, more extensive and can be correlated regionally using seismostratigraphical methods (Stoker et al, 1985; Holmes, 1997).
This chapter brings a review of current evidences of continental and mountain glaciation in Czechia and provides a closer look at the mid Pleistocene (Elsterian and Saalian) continental glaciation limits and chronology from northern part of the country, as well as late Pleistocene mountain glaciations in the Krkonoše and Šumava Mountains.